A - a

aachich   n. Variant: may aachich. ground up arrowroot; flour. Category: Food.

aak   n. 1 • place; home; camp; ground; country. Aak thonamam wampin. They came from the same homeland. Ngay in nyiin-nyiinanga, aakangam. I'm sitting here in our private home/place. Category: Geography.

2 • can refer to time also. Aakan thinth ngul wamp nungant pukan aak-ngeeyowanta. The time has come for her to have her baby.

aak an punchan   n. national identity or homeland, the place where a person comes from. The name of the homeland follows aak e.g. aak Israel punchan. Than aak Israel punchan al-alangana may thanttaman ke'am mungk-mungkin pam wanch Samaria punchan al-alantamaniya. The people of Israel did not eat the food of the Samaritans. Category: Geography.

aak chil   n. ground; or soft sand as on the beach. Syn: aak ngaanh. Category: Geography.

aak kan paanthan   iv. just before dawn, just before the sun comes up. Category: Time.

aak kan pachaman   iv. dawn break when the morning birds call out. Category: Time.

aak kath waa'an   tv. Usage: old way of talking, now mostly say wik kath waa'an. tell an old story that the ancestors told.

aak kech   n. horizon, also can simply mean a distant place. Category: Geography.

aak kepamiy   n. moonlight. Category: Time.

aak kinchang   n. middle of the day. Category: Time.

aak kulangam   adv. always causing trouble. Than aak kulangam wak-wakantan ngamparakana. We're (our family) living in a place where other people are always making trouble and causing fights (towards us).

aak makan   tv. 1 • stay all the time in one place (just sitting or visiting). Often used of lazy, lethargic people. Aak yaa-yaa mak~ana! Don't stay in the house all the time! Ngay ke' ngul iiying, ingam kan aak mak~anga, ngul iiy~ang aakakana. I was going to go, but I'll stay here, and go home later.

2 • make a mess on the floor by spilling something like tea. Than aak makantan, custard thakan yeechantan. They're messing up the floor, spilling custard on it. Category: Idioms.

aak man ngathan   tv. wait for someone (or an animal) in a concealed place so as to block the way. Nil pam alangan aak man ngathant, keenk kuup-kuup nungant. The man hid ahead of where she would come, and waited for her. Pam thonamang aak man ngath minh pangkak, nil wakang nyiin woyan wonkang. A man hid himself in the grass on the wallabies' path (with the intention of spearing one as they came past). Category: Idioms.

aak man thanan   iv. early morning; just about dawnbreak. Aak kan-ngul man thanan. It is almost daybreak. Category: Time, Idioms.

aak mee' kinchangam   temp. daylight; daytime. Category: Time.

aak minangam   adv. sometimes used to mean: at a good time, at the right time. Nilan aak minangam wamp, aak yardan pach uwa. She came at a good time (or: She came when the place looked nice), when the yard was swept.

aak min-minam   See main entry: aak min-minan.

aak min-minan   adv. injure or damage someone to the point of death. Thuuk alangan ke'am aak min-minan path nunang. The snake bite didn't kill him.

aak mook   n. an empty house, due to being abandoned after a death. The area is taboo and people are not allowed to go near. Also used to describe a place where others have been before, and which they have used e.g. they have already dug most of the yams out of a piece of ground. Or can also be used to describe an empty house or camping place, where the people are out.

aak mu'am   n. 1 • an area used or inhabited over long periods; e.g. favourite spot that has been there for many years and to which people come to from all directions (e.g. the Landing, Ubun) for fishing, storytelling, etc.a major camping spot for a group; a much used fighting place; or favourite well.

2 • a place where sorcerers might get people. See: mu'am. Category: Ceremony and Dreaming.

aak ngaanh   n. ground; or soft sand as on beach. Category: Geography.

aak ngakang maayan   tv. flood. Category: Time.

aak ngeen   ques. when; what time.

aak ngeeyan   tv. obey; listen; understand. Kan aak ngeeya! Weenth ey? Obey now! Are you silly? Than aak ngeeyiythan wik inangan, than kuchek waap thinhan. They should have understood this message, they're a bit dull in the head.

aak ngutang   temp. dark; night. Category: Time.

aak oncham (an kuuw)   n. place in the west over the Gulf where the sun goes down, where the spirits or life-force (ngangk thanth of the dead go down and do not re-emerge. Category: Ceremony and Dreaming.

aak pakang mak-makan   tv. sit around doing nothing, want to keep on sitting e.g. stays in the house all the time doing nothing; lazy person, e.g. a person may want a turn at cards, but another person won't budge to allow that person to have a turn. So he might say to him: Nint wanttak aak pakang mak-makangan ee? Why do you just want to keep on sitting, you lazy person? Category: Idioms.

aak pech   n. space; room to sit or live in. Aak pech wanta! Leave a space (for someone to sit or sleep). Aak pechak wenk~ana, ngal yipam nyiin~ala. Look for a place for us to sit. (e.g. at a house opening).

aak pemp   n. tracks on the ground e.g. of a turtle, crab, pig, bullock, girlfriend or boyfriend. In aak pemp wee'antama? Whose tracks are these?

aak petam   temp. a long time ago. Syn: aak keenkanam.

aak pil karp   adv. close together. Aak pil karp nyiinanamp. We're sitting in one room (or area). Aak pil karp aawuch kaachantan ey? Why are they building those houses so close together? Aak pil karp wunanamp. We are next door neighbours.

aak pil wuthanang   adv. crowded, not much space to sit or walk around due to too many people, or things crowding out the space (e.g. much freight in a small aircraft, not leaving much room for a passenger to sit).

aak pur' ngeeyan   tv. to hardly believe (if something is incredible); or hardly hear (if person is deaf).

aak puul   n. tribal country; homeland, specifically father's country, and his father's before him (i.e. patrilineally transmitted). Category: Geography.

aak puunh   n. soft ground, good for sitting down, and also a good place to make a fire in which to cook a damper. Category: Geography.

aak thak-an   tv. sweep; clear.

aak thathan   iv. look out for (someone).

aak ting-ting   temp. very early in the morning, approximately between midnight and 3.00 am. Quiet time when people are asleep.

aak um inch   adv. a long time. Nil aak um inch natham than-thana, minhak yippak wenkana. He's still away hunting, trying to catch game.

aak um-menhang   loc. in the middle (e.g. of a boat, or out in the deep water); inland country e.g. Central Australian desert; to be sitting in a group between others (not the idea of a circle with one person in the middle, but someone sitting with others, rather than off to one side.)

aak umpuyam   temp. Variant: also said as 'aak umpuyangam'. forever, for good. Ngamp aak umpuyam iiy~ampa, palaman ke'-ngul wamp~amp. We're going for good, and not returning.

aak umyompanam   loc. everywhere, all over the world. Category: Geography.

aak way wampan   iv. serious trouble comes to a family or a place e.g. tragedy, or a death in the family, or a food shortage. Refers to either the times being bad, or to a place becoming 'no good'.

aak way wunan   iv. See: aak way wampan.

aak wayang uwan (nunang)   tpv. a girl having her periods (menstruation).

aak wayathan   tv. bring shame on one's relatives by getting into trouble.

aak wom iiy-iiyan   iv. travel by foot for days and days, for a long distance e.g. Weipa to Cairns.

aak woyan   n. road; track. Category: Geography.

aak wunan   iv. Variant: 'aak' is followed by an indirect pronoun like 'thant' or 'ngant' and the word 'yimanang'. custom, cultural ways. Aak thant yimanangan wunan pal yiipuw al-alantana kampan ngent-ngentwuntan. The custom of the people to the south is to marry any kind of relative.

aak yaal   adv. restless; be up and down all the time (sitting down, getting up, going off somewhere quickly, etc.) Nint aak yaal wanttak iiy-iiyangana? What are you up and down for all the time? Nint aak yaal iniy want-wantangana! You're up and down and off here and there all the time.

aak ya' wampan   iv. (person) does not turn up as agreed.

aak yuuk   n. soft runny and white sand as found in the east at the Archer River. The sand west of Aurukun sticks to you if you lie on the sand, but aak yuuk quickly slips off your skin, kempam ench-enchan and is easily brushed off. Category: Geography.

aakam   Variant: minh aakam. n. whale.

aakan wakan   v. to come from that place. Category: Geography. Usage: old peoples' talk. Syn: aak an punchan. Ngay aak Cape Keer-Weer=ama, aakan wakana. I come from Cape Keer-Weer.

aakanak   dem. (go) over there; for that purpose.

aakanak ekAN   iv. shift to another place.

aakang pekan   tpv. gatecrash or take another person's role or responsibility. Nintang ke' aakang pekow nathan iiy~ana. Nint ma' malama! Than ngul iiyayna than-thanama. Don't try and gate-crash. You're out of it. They're going by themselves. Ke' nintang aakang pekowa! Ngan ngul piik~an nunanga! Don't you take that on. We'll hit her! (e.g. said when an older child takes on hitting a younger sister or brother, instead of parents).

aakangam wampan   iv. come back in own good time.

aak-kalan   iv. act foolishly or without thought; to become lost and wander about; search fruitlessly for something lost. Syn: aak-kuman. Nint wanttak aak-kalangan, ke' kuchek waap ke'anang yimanangan ee? Anan job wantana. Why did you foolishly leave that job? Nintwey aak-kal-kalangan ey? Aawuch nungkaram nan kuuwa! Are you wandering around lost? Your house is over in the west. Ngay yaan aak-kalang needle wanttin ee! I'm wandering around searching for that needle wherever it is!

aak-kuman   iv. 1 • become lost; miss a place; or not recognize a place because it has changed since you last saw it. Syn: aak-kalan. Ngay aak-kumangan paal iikanakan wampanga. I missed the place so I came here.

2 • to not understand. Than aak-kumin nungant. They didn't understand him.

aak-kunch   n. owner(s) or boss(es) of a certain territory i.e. a person's homeland.

aak-min   n. a really funny person who likes to make jokes and do funny things.

aak-min thathan   tv. want something very badly (e.g. alcohol, a woman). Nint ngeenak aak-min thathangan ee? Nint miniy weem-weemangan ingamak ngak yipam mungk~an ey? What is it you want so badly? Are you hanging back so you can drink grog?

aak-minam   adv. justifiably (has a good reason). Nil aak-minam kul thaw. He had a good reason to be angry. Nil aak-minam wun-wuna, weech-weechan, tha'ang thanpanam, paathang thakan piikin nunang. He had a good reason to be lying down sick, because they kicked him and hit him with tins.

aak-ngeeyan   adj. describes a good person or spirit who obeys the rules and doesn't like to kill or damage, but who also does good and likes to make peace and stop others from doing harm. The elder of the two yoch-yochiy spirits is described as being aak-ngeeyan. He is good and kindly and constantly tries to prevent the younger brother from doing harm to people. Category: Ceremony and Dreaming.

aak-ngeeyan   iv. to be born. Puk wuut manyan aak-ngeeyanta. A baby boy was born to her.

aak-pathan   tv. sing.

aak-pik-waa'an   iv. growl; complain; grumble. Aak-pik-waa' nil-nilamaniy. She was growling to herself. Category: Mood and Character.

aak-thaampan   tv. put up with; bear; endure, in reference to illness, and also to misfortune. (In referring to illness, it seems to mean a person should continue to act normally even though he or she is sick). Nil wanch alpanan-a, weech-weechan nunang, than wiy anangan thawin nungant, "Nint min-min nyiin~ana! Aak-thaamp~ana!." "Ya'a! Ngay ke' aak-thaampinga! Ngayang weechan kan-kanama!" When a woman was sick, the others said to her, "Sit up properly! Put up with it!" (But she said,) "No, I won't try to! I'm truly sick." Nil pam nungantam nath enkiy nungant, "Nint ngeenam winynyang e?" "Ngay oony thathangana!" Nil puth pam-kunchan thawiyant, "Nint aak-thaamp~ana." Her husband might say to (his wife), "Why are you frightened?" "I saw a ghost!" So her husband might say to her, "Be brave." Puk ngatharamang way yumpan ngayanga, ngan ke'am aak-thaamp-thaampanan. My son has made things bad for me, we can scarcely bear it. Category: Insects.

aak-umpan   iv. watch and search for someone, especially a child. Syn: wenkan.

aak-way   adj. a person who is touchy and cannot take a joke, but takes offence quickly and stubbornly pouts; moody and likes to go his own way.

aak-aak-way   adj. a selfish person who likes his own way.

mee'-aak-way   adj. really jealous. Category: Mood and Character.

aak-way pathan   tv. act silly (but in right mind) e.g. a woman might do an angry dance and lift her dress, or she might sway her body provocatively. Sometimes people deliberately do stupid things to be funny, or to be a nuisance.

aak-way uwan   tv. really sick, just about dead. Category: Insects.

aak-ya'ang   adv. for no purpose, no reason, unnecessarily.

aal   n. Variant: yuk aal. chips, kindling for starting a fire.

aalam   n. deep channel or deep place in river, makes a good fishing place. Aak aalamangan thee'ina, nint minh nga' yot wich-wichin. Throw your line into the channel, you'll catch lots of fish there. Category: Geography.

aamp1   n. As in: kaal-aamp. poison uncle; a man's father-in-law. See: Appendix I.

aamp2   n. a pair of fishing nets held by the hand (two people working together). Netting looped (like waangk waangkam onto oval frame of four flexible sticks. Used for fishing in the swamps, and as a drag net in salt water. See: miich. Category: Artefacts Constructions and Personal Objects.

aanch   adj. Variant: puk aanch. fatherless child or a child who has lost its father's brother or sister.

aanch um   orphan (no mother or father). See: puk um.

aankam   n. Usage: avoidance. ground, place.

aankam mont   n. Usage: avoidance. road, track. Category: Geography. Syn: aak woyan.

aankam-nguchan   tv. Usage: avoidance. sing. Syn: aak-pathan.

aang   n. Usage: avoidance. mouth. Syn: thaa'.

aang wachaman   n. Usage: avoidance. beard, or moustache. Syn: thaa' pench.

aang-ngaalan   n. Usage: avoidance. tongue. Syn: thaa'nganth.

aar'   n. Variant: minh aar'. smallish triangular shaped spotted stingray, with a long tail. Category: Fish.

aath   n. Usage: avoidance. cheek.

wuup aath   n. Usage: avoidance. face. Syn: kaa'wal.

aathal   adj. mad person (e.g. who might lose his temper); deaf person (e.g. who has discharging ('leaky') ears), sometimes can also mean a bossy person. Syn: weenth.

aathan1   iv. 1 • a fire (thum) or bushfire (nhoom) catches on and spreads quickly (maybe helped on by the wind). Thuman puy-puyam aath-aathan. That fire is rapidly spreading. Thuun inpal kaawan wunpana, kuuwam aathan, nhoomaniy. The wind blew hard from the east, and so the bushfire spread to the west.

2 • pass on a sickness (e.g. a fresh cold).

3 • When aathan is used with pek (i.e. pek aathan it means to proceed from one point to another e.g. in reading, sewing, or walking, etc. Pek aatha! Wak~ana anpal keny aath~an um pek wak~ana! Sew it from the top to the bottom. Nil anpal keny thath aakanakam pek aath. He read from the top (of the page) to the bottom. Ngamp aak townam inpalana um pek-pek aathimpa. Let's go from town right down to the landing.

aathan2   dv. give, mostly food. Can also be used of relatives giving a woman as a wife to a man.

kon-aathAN   tv. remind; let know; train an animal.

man-aathAN   tv. tease.

ma'-aathAN   dv. give (money, food etc); help, give a hand; show or; teach how to do something with hands.

mee'-aathAN   tv. show; introduce someone new. Variant: also said as 'meenathan' and 'meenngathan'.

thaa'-aathAN   dv. teach with words, e.g. especially how to learn a language, or arithmetic.

thaa'-wal-aathAN   dv. share food widely (e.g. with everyone).

wanch-aathan   n. when people, especially the parents, give their daughter to a man to be his wife, they then refer to the man, their son-in-law, as wanch-aathan.

aath(wuntan)   tv. share; swap, give each other things.

aawuch   n. house. Category: Artefacts Constructions and Personal Objects.

aawuch-kunch   owner of house.

aay   As in: may at aay. See: at.

aay wakan   iv. fire keeps on burning till it burns out. Thum yoompan yaam pench-pencha, aay wak-wak, ya'-ngul minch. The firewood kept on burning, till it burnt out, and there was none left.

aaymook   n. Variant: 'minh aaymook'; and pronounced 'aaym ook'. fish of the types Black Pomfret; Blue Skate; Turbot (Parastromateus Niger); locally called paper fish. A small flat diamond-shaped fish. Found in salt water during the season um thurpak. Seldom caught on a line. Good eating. It is a mate to the nail fish, minh piny. Category: Fish.

aa!   excl. Oh!Oh dear! Oh, I made a mistake!

aa'   n. As in: As in: As in: 

achakum   n. nails, bone or wire, or small grass spear, thrown mostly at night but sometimes in the day when out hunting to perform an act of sorcery. Only performed by sorcerers. Some old men still practise this. Nil pam ma' wop alangan achakumang chint nunang wanchaniya, puth weech-weechan nunang, way-wayaman wun-wunana. The sorcerer speared the woman with a small object, so now she's very sick. Category: Ceremony and Dreaming.

achamp   n. Variant: minh achamp. emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), Australia's largest bird, flightless, long powerful legs with three toes, grey-brown to very dark, almost black. Traditionally only eaten by older people because of scarcity. If eaten by younger people, it is believed hair will turn prematurely grey. Rarely seen now. Category: Birds.

achamp wok   n. Variant: minh achamp wok. baby emu striped for camouflage in long grass. Stays with family for up to 18 months.

achantang   adj. 1 • high, raised. (Used to describe such things as: electric poles, houses, raised ground, animals sitting up straight, hair styled to sit up in front.) Achantang nyiina, wumpan ya'a! Sit up straight, not hunched over! Keny achantang wunp~ana, than ku' il-ilangan ngul mungkina! Put it up high, or else those dogs will eat it! May palowan achantang thip ulpa! The damper has risen (can be used of cakes also).

2 • loud speech or singing. Man achantang thaw-thawana. He's speaking loudly. (e.g. at a Community meeting). Man achantang thaw-thawana. He's speaking loudly. (e.g. at a Community meeting). Man achantang thaw-thawana. He's speaking loudly. (e.g. at a Community meeting).

tha' achantang nyiinAN   iv. sit on haunches.

tha' achantang thanAN   iv. stand on tiptoe.

achanthup   n. a person who has style e.g. a young man who dresses flashily in western shirts, jeans and riding boots; can also describe a person who tells lies and who thinks he is smart. See: thup.

achiy thawan   iv. sneeze. Variant: also can be said as 'kaa' achiy thawan'. Ngay achiy thaw-thawang, than yaaka' ngayang waa'-waa'antana a' ak-akantana. I'm sneezing, maybe someone is talking about me and swearing at me. Kaa' achiyathiyang ke' waa'~an nunang, nil in puth ya'a. Nil palaman wampow-a, mee'angam ep thaw~an nungant. Don't talk about that person behind his back, he's not here. When he comes, talk to him to his face.

ach-min   adj. (to do something) well; properly (e.g. making baskets and dillybags, movement e.g. walking; also used of good, fluent speech or lovely singing voice); to be beautiful, to make something look nice (e.g. a birthday cake, table decorations, or a grave). Ach-min yump-yumpana niiy dance=an min-minam paththam kee'-kee'ana. You did that dance very well. Wikan ach-min thaw, nil wik othamayan thaw-thawan. He's speaking nice and clearly (easy to hear). Yuk ngoyngk inana ach-min than-thantan. This shade is really beautiful.

ach-umpan   tpv. to make attractive, to look; nice (can be said of people, clothes, flowers, houses, dilly bags, etc.) An ach-umpan pulanga, yuk olkan kuchek pulantamangan kathpul. Those two look good with headdresses on. An ach-ump-umpan nintang, may kooth yanganangan wunpana. You look good with that waterlily in your hair.

ach-umpanam   adj. looking beautiful (Used especially at times like sunset and sunrise, at the breaking of dawn, and in the September and October months in the late afternoons when the clouds are banked up prior to a storm, stretched along the horizon like castles.) Yuw in kenyan ach-umpanam wun-wuntana. Those clouds look beautiful. An ach-umpanam than-thantana, may kooth ananganiya. Those waterlilies look beautiful.

achwey   adj. ugly; or odd-looking (of a person or his appearance). Kulich achwey kal-kalangana. You're wearing odd, ugly clothes. Koonh achwey pentan ngul. The tooth is broken off, leaving an odd-looking appearance. Nint ulp-ulpanang iiy-iiyangan ey? Nint menth ey? Hollywood girl ey? An ya'a. Nint tha' kontathiy puth ma' yuungkathiy thathan nungkamang, kuchekathiy thakana, achwey iiy-iiyangan, menth ya'a. You proudly think you are pretty like a Hollywood girl, do you? Oh, no! You should look at your big ankles and big elbows and big head, you're ugly, not pretty!

ach-wool nyiinan   iv. feel good, not worrying. Category: Mood and Character. Puk manyan yukang mat-matiy, a' keekiywey natha, nil kemwayyow-kunchan thawiy kaath-kunch alantan, "Thuwa! Ach wool ke' nyiin~ana! Wiy kemiyang yukam encha!" If a child should climb up a tree and fall down, his grandmother would say to the mother, "Daughter! Don't sit there contentedly without a care! That's why the grandchild has fallen from the tree!"

ak1   n. protruding flesh. Category: Body Parts and Products. Category: Body Parts and Products. Category: Body Parts and Products.

thaa' ak   n. lips. Syn: thaa' pe'an.

thip ak   n. loose skin around tummy area ('spare tyre'). Syn: thip pe'an.

ak2   n. string spun from rough skin part (thuuth pe'an) of Cabbage Fan Palm. Syn: pe'an.

akan   tv. swear; also swear in the sense of an oath (e.g. swearing on a person's hands or head or blood or spear wounds, or worst of all, on a dead body).

akang thanAN   iv. body shaking and shivering with hot anger while swearing, building up to doing an angry dance.

koonhang akAN   tv. really bad swearing. Category: Mood and Character.

akang than-thanan   iv. shake body in anger. Category: Mood and Character.

akangam   adj. shaking; quivering from fear or sickness. Category: Mood and Character. Nil kemp akangam than-than. He was shaking with fear (from watching the bad fighting). He was shaking with fever. Ma' akangam than-than. His hand was shaking from nerves, from a fright (e.g. from hearing a shot). Nil kemp akangam than-than. He was shaking with fear (from watching the bad fighting). He was shaking with fever. Ma' akangam than-than. His hand was shaking from nerves, from a fright (e.g. from hearing a shot). Nil kemp akangam than-than. He was shaking with fear (from watching the bad fighting). He was shaking with fever. Ma' akangam than-than. His hand was shaking from nerves, from a fright (e.g. from hearing a shot). Nil kemp akangam than-than. He was shaking with fear (from watching the bad fighting). He was shaking with fever. Ma' akangam than-than. His hand was shaking from nerves, from a fright (e.g. from hearing a shot).

kon wal akangam thanAN   iv. puzzled, does not know what to do.

man akangam thanAN   iv. speak or sing in quivering voice.

ngangk akangam thanAN   iv. 1 • guilty feelings.

2 • scared.

akaraman   iv. wither away; dry up; fade away (used of flowers, plants, and people and animals). Pach anangan kan-ngul akaramantan. Those flowers have almost faded away. Wanchinthan kan-ngul akaraman ngula, kan-ngul uthamanaka. That old lady is all withered up and faded, and just about ready to die.

akareey    See: akathareey.

akathareey   excl. Variant: also said as 'akareey'; pronounced 'akathar`eey' and 'akar`eey'. Goodness me!Gracious! (expressing surprise).

akench   n. part of leg behind the knee. Akenchang koy-koyyuw iiya ngamparanga. He just went behind us. Category: Body Parts and Products.

ak-thaa'   adv. repeat after (in speech or singing); follow after. Usage: mostly said to children. Niiy ak-thaa' ngatharang thaw~ana. Say after me. Niiy ak-thaa' ngatharang kamp mo'~ana, ngay keenk mo'~ang, niiy kul-kulama. You run after me, I'll go first, you follow.

akul   adv. Variant: also 'kalkul'. folded up; cross-legged.

akul nyiinan   iv. sit cross-legged, with legs underneath.

akul pipan   iv. 1 • sit cross-legged; coiled up (e.g. as of a snake).

2 • fold up blankets or swag.

akul wun-wunan   iv. lie with legs crossed and arms folded up.

ak-wichan   tv. attempt to stop someone from going somewhere. "Nipala! Ngay kan iiy~anga!" "Aw! Nint ke' iiy~ana! Ngampwey ingama!" "Nip ngayang ke' ak-wichow ingamakana!" "Hey, you two! I'm going!" "Oh, no! Don't go! We're staying here!" "Don't you two make me stay here!"

akwul1   n. Variant: yuk akwul. a large tree growing near swamps or rivers (as at Yagalmungkan and the Watson River) with smooth brownish bark and pinkish flowers attractive to native bees. Used for firewood. Good water can always be found near this tree, e.g. springs, cold refreshing water. Category: Plants.

akwul2   n. Variant: 'minh akwul'; pronounced by some 'akal' or 'akwal'. Name for the fish types Freshwater Catfish Dewfish; and Butterjew (Neosilurus ater), locally called dewfish. These are freshwater eel-tailed catfish, yellow in colour. Good eating. They can grow up to 6 kg, but usually average 2 kg. They are caught with earthworms, grubs or bait from the flesh of frogs, lizards or birds. Category: Fish.

al   adv. occurring only in: man al iiyan. hurrying to catch up, maybe via a short cut through bushes.

al-alantam   dem. belonging to those ones; from those ones; because of those ones.

al-alantan   dem. to those ones; for those ones.

al-alantang   dem. with those persons.

al-alangan   dem. those ones (people or animals) (did something to someone). Niiyang al-alangan ak-akantan! Those ones are swearing at you!

alantam   dem. belonging to that one; from that person; because of that person. Wukal ngay ya'a, ngay alantam uwangan. I haven't any spare money; I had to get some from that person. Q: Waangk inan wee'antama? A: Wanchinth alantama! Nil ngath thee'a. Q: Whose dilly bag is this? A: It's the old lady's and she gave it to me. Ngay ngangk winynyang mo'ang pam alantam ngutang ngath ang wamp. That man frightened me when he came to me at night, (drunk).

alantan   dem. to that one; for that one. Ya'a! Ngay alantan thee'anga! No (I can't give you a loan). I've already given to that person. Walmant kaanch pent nungant pam komp alantan. The cheek bones of the young man are sticking out.

alantang(an)   dem. with that person; in that (vehicle); on someone's body (or body part). Nil anana, alantangan nyiinan. She's over there, sitting with that one. Nil car alantangan mo'a, Johnny=antang. He has gone in that car, Johnny's car. Nil picham nungantang alantangan nyiin. He sat on the shoulders of that man.

alangaman   dem. that same one (did something to someone); with that same one; in that same one.

alangan   dem. that one (person or animal) (did something to someone); in that; with that. Nintang alangan piik, nint ngoongk-ngoongkiyanga. That person hit you, but you didn't see him. Nil kek alangan ngaarpanang chint nunang. He speared him by mistake. Ngay pillow alangan nyiinang. I sat on that pillow.

alkay   n. type of string bag. Usually refers to kempan or waangk yoompan. Category: Artefacts Constructions and Personal Objects.

almp   n. yam-digging stick usually made of wattle wood (yuk yakal). Also used for fighting. Syn: kechan2. Category: Artefacts Constructions and Personal Objects.

alpan   n. sick person, (from any kind of sickness). Category: Insects.

amanam(an)   dem. from that (thing); from there; from that time; because of that reason. Nil may waththiy maay waangk amanam. She took some yams out of that dilly bag.

ampangan   iv. Usage: avoidance. to get up from sleep or from sitting down, to start to fly as applied to birds or planes. Minh panch an-ngul ampang. That bird has flown away. Syn: ekan.

ampangathan   tv. Usage: avoidance. wake someone up; raise someone. Syn: ekathan.

an   dem. over there; that one; that thing. Pam ngatharam wanttina? Nil ana! Where's my husband? He's over there.

an keny   dem. way up there.

an pek   dem. long way down there.

an yoon, anam yoon   dem. outside e.g. outside the cleared camping area, outside the house, the village, even 'off the blanket'. Can also mean out in the village area, rather than near the store or office.

anam   dem. over there (in sense of back there). Ngay gunan anam wantang. I left my gun back over there. Ngay latan anam pi'ang yippaka, ngay ke' minchathang yippak. I'm still keeping that book back over there; I haven't finished it yet.

anan   dem. that one; that thing. Anan yuk ngatha! Ngay piiyanga Cairns=am anpalan. That thing is mine! I brought it from Cairns.

ananathan   tv. tease. Syn: man-aathan, wukal-aathan.

an-aniyangan   conj. at the same time. Plane pi'an inganan wamp-a, an-aniyangan ngak pi'anan uk-uk aak ingan. There was a heavy rain storm just as the big plane landed.

an-anman   dem. a very long time ago.

anangaman   dem. those same ones.

anangan   dem. those ones. Ngay anangan pal piiying! I wish I could buy those things. Puk manyiy anangan kamp mo'-mo'ina, yuk way min yaaka' maayin. Those children ran fast, maybe they've been stealing.

anar   adj. really cold. Syn: kuchar. Category: Time.

anch   n. Variant: yuk anch. names given to trees where flying birds like ibis and geese roost at night (yuk anchang nyiintan). Not one species only, but any of the large tree types they are accustomed to roost in. Category: Plants.

anchakal   n. Variant: minh anchakal. Name for fish types Oxeye herring; and Tarpon; locally called swampfish. Swift swimming fish with a silver body and very large eyes. Often seen finning along the surface. When feeding in deep water releases a trail of bubbles. Very bony. Grows to 3 kg. (Megalops Cyprinoides). Category: Fish.

anchan   iv. fall in love. Paman nung ancha wanch alantan, wiy pul kaangk wun-wunpul pulantakama. That man has fallen in love with that woman, that's why they like each other. Category: Mood and Character.

anchan   tv. sting from bite (e.g. of a hornet, spider, dog or snake); sore that stings e.g., when onion gets in your eyes, or when medicine is being applied to a wound. Ngayang puunyang kemp pathina, wiy kempan anch-anchan ngayanga! Hornets stung me, and as a result, my skin is stinging. Oparang ngul anch nintang, ke' wik peey~ana! The medicine will sting you, but don't cry!

anchathan   n. spear type. See: kek anchathan.

anhan   adj. heavy. Kaa' anhan. Choked with a cold. Nunk anhanang nath uwow nintang, ke'-paal nint achiy achiy anman thaw-thawangan. Maybe you are getting a heavy cold, and that's why you're sneezing. Thaa' anhan pung gunanga! Minh nath yaaka' punga! That was a heavy-sounding shot! He's probably got it.

anhanathan   tv. make heavy (either a thing or a person, e.g. by heaping blankets on them to carry). Bucket in tha'iya, ke' anh-anhanath~an, yotan ke' wunp~ana! There is already plenty in this bucket. Don't make it heavier by adding more to it.

ankan1   n. Usage: avoidance. tomahawk. Syn: thayan. Category: Artefacts Constructions and Personal Objects.

ankan2   adj. Usage: avoidance. hard; strong. Syn: thayan.

ankanaman   iv. Usage: avoidance. harden. Used also of the body hardening in fits, and of arguing. Syn: thayanaman. Nil ya' ank-ankanaman. He took a fit, and was very stiff. Pul ank-ankanamanpul. Those two are arguing.

ankanathan   tv. Usage: avoidance. harden; strengthen. Used also for strongly protecting land by not allowing others to take it over, aak ankanathanak. Syn: thayanathan.

anman   dem. that same one; a long time ago; that's all. Pam anman nila, ka'athangaman wamp inga. That's the same man that came here before.

anman kan   that's all (for now).

an-ngul   dem. already (gone) over there. Nil an-ngul kanam mo'. He's already gone.

anpal   Variant: also 'anpalan'. dem. from that; from there; from that time; because of that reason. Ngakang epan ngut ongka, nilan ke'-paal anpalan kootra ench. She was soaked all night from the rain, and so she became ill. Aak nung ana! Wachana! Nil anpal wampa. His home is far away. That's where he comes from.

anpalan    See: anpal.

anpalaniya   dem. after that time; from that place; because of that.

ant   n. Variant: thul ant. long shaped pieces of baler shell on the end of woomeras. Syn: pinch. Category: Artefacts Constructions and Personal Objects.

ang   dem. over there; in or on there. Ngay ang wunpanga. I left that thing over there.

angam   dem. right over there; there (to stay). Nil palam ke' yaaka' wampow, nil angam ngul wunow. Maybe he won't come here, but will stay there.

angan   dem. on that; in that. Ngay latan table angan wantang, ngul wee'ang yaaka' maay ngatharam. I left that book on that table, then someone took it. Nil ngoyngk angan nyiina. He was sitting over there in that shade (of the tree).

ang-angam   adv. keep on and on, without pausing (e.g. fish constantly nibbling line). Ang-angam mungkan mayaniya, ngangkang ke' thee'anam. He's eating all the time, not taking a break.

angk   n. a type of yam (maybe Cayratia sp.) found in melon holes and on the grassy edges of rivers. It is a round root eaten after cooking in the ashes or the fire or in an earth oven. Available in the kaap and onchan seasons, up till September. Category: Food.

angkalam   n. Usage: avoidance. hair. Syn: yangan. Category: Body Parts and Products.

angkalamwet   n. Usage: avoidance. 1 • widower, a man who has lost a wife or wife's brother or sister.

2 • widow, a woman who has lost her husband, husband's brother or sister. Syn: wukalongk.

angkam ump-umpan   iv. hit sides with bent arms when doing the angry dance (thuunth-thuunthan). Category: Mood and Character.

angkangan   ipv. Usage: avoidance. sick. Syn: weechan. Category: Insects. Namp-pinya! Nintang angk-angkangan ey? Daughter, are you sick?

angkarathan   n. Variant: minh angkarathan. rock cod. Category: Fish.

angman   dem. there in that (same) place. Nil wallet nungantam angman want, anpalan wiyang ngul yaaka' maayin. He left his wallet there in that same place; now maybe others have taken it.

ang-ngul   dem. over there in that place. Ngay ang-ngul ngul thee'~ang nungka. I'll give it to you later over there in that place. Ang-ngul kal~an nunanga. An ngul thathayna. Take him over there to them. They'll see him.

ang!   excl. expresses surprise, with the sense of "You don't mean to say!"

any   adv. fast, very quickly. Kamp any mo'a! Run here speedily! Wuntang plane=an any kal-kalana! The wind is making the plane go fast.

ap   onom, adv. noise of tomahawk when chopping for firewood, or for sugarbag. Ana wee'ang ap umpana? Who's chopping the tree down? Category: Sounds.

apachan   n. As in: As in: As in: As in: 

apalech1   n. the ritual complex from the area stretching from Love River to Knox River, involving songs, dances (e.g. shark dance, whale dance, barramundi dance and mullet dance) and creation myths left by the two Pungk Apalech men. It links clans in the area as landholders in charge of totemic centres along mythic tracks. See: pucha; wanam. Category: Ceremony and Dreaming.

apalech2   adj. salt water, really clear sparkling water, calm and glassy in the dry season, onchan min. As in: ngak apalech. Category: Geography.

apam   tv. belch; burp. As in: man apam thee'an. Category: Sounds.

apam enchan   iv. to hide quickly so no-one sees you.

apan   tv. 1 • peel off ti-tree bark (kich ap) with a heavy stick (kechan) or a tomahawk or a knife, in order to wrap stingrays or freshwater sharks in the bark ready for cooking in a ground oven.

2 • chop and open up the "mouth" end of a spear handle (kek okanch or kek thiimpin) in order to insert prongs.

uungk apAN   tv. make a smooth hole for nails or barbs to go in a spear. The cheekbone from a wallaby is sometimes used for the scraping of the hole. Category: Artefacts Constructions and Personal Objects.

apar   n. Variant: yuk apar. Small stinging caterpillar, with white hairs and black feelers. Causes one to sting and itch badly. Category: Insects.

apee!   excl. an expression of excitement or anger, meaning something like: "Whatever is happening here?"

apey!   excl. Goodness gracious!

apiy!   excl. Usage: spoken very fast and low. 1 • Oops, I made a mistake, eh? Syn: apu'!.

2 • Can also mean, "Or do you disagree with what I've just said?" (e.g. this could be added by a speaker after he makes a proposal to go fishing.)

appa   greeting. goodbye.

appang   excl. Oh no!

appap   adv. hush!,quietly. Othamayan ke' thengkwey! Appap ee! Don't laugh so loudly! Hush! Than appap nyiin-nyiintana. They're sitting quietly.

appenchan   iv. run away,become lost,lost to sight. Puk many ngatharam ya' appench, nil wanttin yaaka' iiy-iiyana? My child has slipped away, I wonder where he is? Wik ya' appench ngatharamwey. That word has gone out of my mind. Punth-paam anan mo'-mo'an, um kaaw Cairns=aka, anpalaniya ya'-ngul appench. The plane was flying east towards Cairns, now it is out of sight.

appow   greeting. goodbye, or used as a greeting in passing.

aprok   onom. frogs' noise.

apu'!   excl. Oops, I made a mistake! Syn: apiy!.

arkiy!   excl. Goodness gracious! No! e.g. if someone tells lies or makes a joke to tease someone, someone might answer, "Arkiy! Ya'a!"

at   n. As in: As in: As in: 

ath   onom. can refer to the sound of a bell,or to other cracking, snapping or clapping sounds.

ath ngeeyAN   tv. hear the sound of the bell.

ath piikAN   tv. ring a bell.

ma' ath piikAN   tv. clap hands,or beat with hands.

ma' ath thuthAN   tv. crack finger joints.

ma' ath umpAN   tv. clap hands,or beat with hands.

thaa' athathiy may mungk-mungkAN   tv. smack lips when eating.

athalkang   n. Variant: yuk athalkang. Beefwood tree (either Alphitonia obtusifolia or Xylomelum scottianum). A medium sized tree (to 20m) with small thin shiny leaves and brownish rough bark. Heartwood reddish in colour. Thin leaves. Yellow flowers. Common near Aurukun. Used as timber for houses and for making tobacco pipes. Category: Plants.

athamayan   adv. See: othamayan.

athan   tv. Usage: avoidance. light a fire. Syn: pathathan.

athant1   n. Variant: yuk athant. white tree in beach side scrub used to carve wide smooth dishes about 1 metre long, used for carrying loads of food etc. The dish is made from the wood, not the bark. The seed of this tree is called the windmill seed. Category: Plants.

athant2   n. Variant: minh athant. swim bladder of fish. This is a long white balloon-like sack inside near the liver of many fish. It is cooked inside when the fish is cooked and is alright to eat. The meat is soft and slippery like that of a jellyfish. Category: Fish. Syn: minh thuut.

ath-ath   adv. quickly,hard. Ath-ath mo'~ana! Run fast!

athiy   n. grandfather (mother's father and his brothers). Syn: ngechwuut. See: ngechwuut in Appendix I.

aw1   n. story place,totem place,totemic centre. There are many of these, and they are considered taboo. It is said that they were left by the totemic beings who 'went down' after completing their creative and mythic deeds. There are a wide range of aw which have different rules of ownership and access, and different rituals associated with them. Some, e.g. ku'aw on the Archer River, are totemic centres for totemic beings; others are centres for the spirits of the dead for a particular clan, and others are increase centres. Those who control them are those in whose clan countries, aak puul, they lie. They can be dangerous for outsiders e.g. a woman is said to become pregnant if she goes near puk aw. If people go near the yamstick story place on the Kendall River, they are said to get severe stomach pains because the yamstick is piercing their intestines. If men or boys go near a story place (e.g. a waterfall north of Aurukun) they will become pregnant. But if the boss of that totem place rubs underarm sweat on them as they come near the totem place, then they will be protected and will not get sick or pregnant. As they approach, they will also call out to their ancestors: In nganam ow! Inwey kalan thananga! Ke' kaa'-kuman thanang! It's just us! We've brought those ones! Don't refuse to recognize them! See: aw kenthan. Category: Ceremony and Dreaming.

aw2   v. fond of e.g. of men or women, children, food, fish, or of certain attitudes. Syn: weenth. pam awa (a woman who is) fond of men. pam man-ngeeyan awa! a man who is forever disbelieving others. engkan awa inquisitive person. Category: Mood and Character. Category: Mood and Character.

ngoyngk-thathan-aw   someone fond of new, good clothes all the time.

aw kenthan   tv. 1 • someone getting into a totem place and disturbing it in some way. Sickness follows as a result.

2 • refers also to increase rituals at those totem places that are increase centres e.g. a yam centre. It is believed that the ritual ensures bountiful, large yams by sending out the spirits concerned.

aw yal-yalmathan   tv. claim that someone is your girlfriend or boyfriend when the other person hasn't agreed; claim that things (e.g. blanket, cup) are yours when in reality they belong to others and you have no right to them.

awal1   n. 1 • smell (of food, person, thing, animal, etc.) Awal min unchan ngak rainan ukan aak ngaanhangana. There is a good smell when the first rains come.

2 • Used (with verb nuuthan/nguuthan of a woman being attracted to a man. Nint pam-weentha, puth nint awal nguuth-nguuthangan nunanga! You're man crazy and attracted to that fellow! Nint pam-weentha, puth nint awal nguuth-nguuthangan nunanga! You're man crazy and attracted to that fellow!

thaa' awal min   good smell or taste in the mouth, after eating something good e.g. fish or after kissing. Category: Idioms.

awal2   n. voice.

awal pathan   tv. know someone very well, to be used to them; or to be familiar with them. Ngan Mama wee'anangan nintang awal pathan. We (Mama, I, etc) know you very well.

awalang thee'an   tv. to put one's smell (underarm perspiration) on another person or child, so that they will not get sick. This is often done by the owner of a country when he and others are approaching a story place. It is also done to newcomers after they have seen a traditional dance for the first time e.g. Wanam or Apalech (which have their origin in the story place) e.g., at the Lochhardt River dance festival, the Lochhardt River people and children had the smell put on them after seeing the Aurukun and Edward River dances. Another occasion when this happens is when a child is born. Some days after the birth the aunties and uncles on the father's side, and the father, sit in a straight line and pass the baby along. They all put their smell on him or her. The father sits at the end, and he is the last one to put his smell on the child. Category: Ceremony and Dreaming.

awam   n. As in: puk awam. a child who is subnormal in mind, and speech.

awar   n. hole in ground or sand e.g. bauxite pit, or may be one dug by a pig or a dog. Sometimes used to mean a grave. Category: Geography.

awey!   excl. Come here!

aw!   excl. Oh no!

ay   adv. As in: thaa'-ay. speak up loudly or sing loudly, not afraid to speak up.

ayeey!   excl. Hey! (when calling out from a long distance).

aykar   n. Usage: avoidance. string (for any use, e.g. fishing lines, making dillybags, binding spears), also for widows to wear around their necks and armpits and over shoulders),strips of material for binding sores. Syn: kuuy. Category: Artefacts Constructions and Personal Objects.

aymiy   n. bereaved mother, who has lost a child, also a woman whose sister's child has died, or a man who has lost his sister's son. See: maakiy; munh; aanch; um; ooy; mant.

ayyang   excl. Hey!

a'   conj. and,and then,next.